After studying at the Cours Florent then at the Conservatoire de Paris, she enters the Comédie-Française in 1993. That same year, she makes her début on stage during the Avignon Festival where she plays Elvire in Don Juan. After leaving the Comédie-Française in 1997, among other parts she plays Lady Macbeth in Macbeth (1997), Prouhèze in Le Soulier de Satin (2003), Helena in Oncle Vania (2004), alongside with Joël Jouanneau, Julie Brochen, Olivier Py, Jean-François Peyret, or also in Berlin with Martin Wuttke.
Since 1992, Jeanne Balibar quickly becomes a major figure of the independant cinema. She has played in some forty films, among which : Comment je me suis disputé…(ma vie sexuelle) (1996) by Arnaud Desplechin, Dieu seul me voit (1998), J’ai horreur de l’Amour (1997) Mange ta soupe (1997) and Le stade de Wimbledon (2001) by Mathieu Amalric, Fin août, début septembre (1998), Clean (2004) by Olivier Assayas, Saltimbank (2003) by Jean-Claude Biette, Va Savoir (2001) and Ne touchez pas la hache (2006) by Jacques Rivette, Sagan by Diane Kurys (2008), Le Plaisir de chanter by Ilan Duran Cohen (2008) or also Ne change rien by Pedro Costa (2010).
From 2003 onwards, the actress begins a career as a singer. She lends her voice to compositions by Rodolphe Burger and writes part of the texts with Pierre Alféri for an album entitled Paramour, followed three years later by Slalom Dame, in which she collabores with Dominique A, Fred Poulet and the bass player Sarah Murcia, among others.
Jeanne Balibar invites Boris Charmatz for a “carte blanche” (Sophiensaele, Berlin) in 2005 on the occasion of the project en Micronésie by Pierre Alféri.